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Business Finance 101 – COS or COGS – Cost of Sales or Cost of Goods Sold – What it means

Business Finance 101 – COS or COGS – Cost of Sales or Cost of Goods Sold – What it means

COS or COGS – Cost of Sales or Cost of Goods Sold – What it means

Cost of Sales (COS) or Cost of goods sold (COGS) is the cost of the product that was sold to customers. It includes the cost of materials and direct labour used to produce the goods ready to sell. The cost of goods sold is reported on the profit and loss at the time/period the sales revenues of the goods sold are reported.

A retailer’s cost of goods sold includes the cost from its supplier plus any additional costs necessary to get the product into inventory and ready for sale. For example, a store purchases a book from a publisher. If the cost from the publisher is $60 plus $5 in delivery costs, the store reports $65 in its Inventory account until the book is sold. When the book is sold, the $65 is removed from inventory and is reported as cost of goods sold on the profit and loss.

COGS is usually the largest expense on the profit and loss of a company selling products or goods. Cost of Goods Sold are deducted from the sales/revenue.

Cost of goods sold is calculated in full, as follows:

Cost of beginning inventory + cost of goods purchased (net of any return stock) + freight-in – cost of ending inventory.

This account balance or this calculated amount will be deducted from the sales amount on the income statement, leaving a Gross Profit.

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Xero – Handling Overpayments in Xero

Xero – Handling Overpayments in Xero

Handling Overpayments in Xero

From the Xero blog, here is how to handle overpayments in Xero and resolve them –

Overpayments can be challenging at times, or even forgotten. There are some easy ways to handle overpayments within Xero.

Let’s take a look at a few ways we can record an overpayment and apply this to an invoice/bill or refund it directly. In Xero, the term “invoice” relates to a sale, and a “bill” relates to a purchase. I’ve only referred to invoices below, but these processes relate to both.

To Record (handle) an Overpayment, you can either:

  • Simply enter the amount paid directly onto the invoice, and if the amount exceeds your invoice total, Xero will automatically calculate an Overpayment transaction.
  • Create an Overpayment Receive Money / Spend Money transaction in your bank account
  • During reconciliation, create an Overpayment Receive Money / Spend Money transaction

Allocate or Refund an Overpayment (Resolve the overpayment)

Once the Overpayment transaction has been entered into Xero, a cash refund can be recorded or you can allocate the overpaid amount to an invoice for the same Contact in Xero.

  • The Allocate option will appear in the Overpayment Options drop down menu while viewing your Overpayment transaction.
  • If a contact has a new invoice you created Xero will ask if you wish to allocate the overpaid amount against this invoice.
  • You can record Cash Refunds on the Overpayment directly and then reconcile them with your Bank Statement line.

(XERO) have some great Help Centre pages that step through Overpayments in Xero. You can check them out here, and call us for help!

Need help? Not sure? Call for FREE 30min advice / strategy session today! 0407 361 596 Aust

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Bookkeeping – 7 tips for business health by keeping healthy books/accounts!

Bookkeeping – 7 tips for business health by keeping healthy books/accounts!

Bookkeeping – 7 tips for business health by keeping healthy books/accounts!

Here are some timely reminders from J T Ripton at smallbizdaily.com

Accounting is often one of the toughest jobs for small business owners, especially those who don’t have a lot of experience or a strong background in bookkeeping. Following a few simple tips throughout the year can make it much easier to track expenses and file taxes when the time comes.

1. Plan Ahead

The first step is to look ahead at the potential needs for your company and plan for these expenses. For example, if you know that you will need to replace expensive equipment in the near future, make sure to set aside funds every month to cover the costs. Other major expenses that may arise include office supplies, inventory, maintenance, and repairs. You can also set aside money each month to cover the annual taxes, so you won’t stress about the amount you need to pay when April 15 arrives.

2. Use Reliable Software

Business bookkeeping software has come a long way over the past decade, and some programs make it much simpler to input expenses and cash flow. MYOB, Reckon and Xero allow you to keep everything you need in one place for easy recovery as needed. From tracking the status of unpaid invoices, to creating customized invoices, to tracking billable hours and budget spent, online accounting software is a great way to save time and money. Some programs like Dropbox and  Google Drive also offer cloud access to your files, which means that you can pull up information from anywhere instead of having to go to the office to find a document or receipt.

3. Separate Business and Personal

If you use your business credit card to pay for a personal expense, make sure to track that and separate it as soon as possible. It is much easier to separate expenses if you use separate accounts to pay for them, but you may accidentally use your business card for a non-company purchase. Business costs are tax deductible, so make it easier on yourself by separating them every time you make a purchase.

4. Schedule Yourself

When it comes to bookkeeping, it might seem easier to just put it off until the end of the year. However, this is going to result in a big headache when you are trying to track down receipts and invoices that may be months old. Schedule time each week or each month to work on your books and stay as current as possible. It may be tempting to skip this every so often, but when you can stick to the schedule, it will be much easier to stay on top of the finances without feeling so stressed.

5. Review Invoices

Be sure to keep close track of your invoices, since some (clients) are notorious for paying bills late. You can probably use your accounting software to run a monthly report and determine what invoices are still outstanding. This gives you the flexibility to send reminders and follow up on outstanding bills before too much time passes. It is also smart to keep a close eye on your cash flow statement, so you can avoid the dreaded insufficient funds message on a payment.

6. Call in a Pro

For some things, it is definitely worth the investment to bring in an expert. You may rely on a financial advisor who specializes in your industry, or you might just need an accountant who can pay your taxes and payroll. You can even use a student intern who is working on an accounting degree if the budget is tight.

7. Track Expenses

Most experts discourage business owners from using cash to pay for any business expense, since it can be very difficult to track. When you use a credit card or debit card, you can view the transactions right away and make sure that all items are true business expenses to avoid issues with write-offs and taxes.

Accurate bookkeeping is an important part of business ownership, so it is crucial to stay on top of the expenses and invoices to prevent problems. If you have questions about bookkeeping, you can always rely on an expert, but once you have your system down, it should be much easier to keep track of the money coming in and out of your company each day.

Need help? Not sure? Call for FREE 30min advice / strategy session today!

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Business Tax Tips – GST and Hire Purchase

Business Tax Tips – GST and Hire Purchase

GST and Hire Purchase

Many businesses acquire assets such as equipment by entering into hire purchase or leasing agreements to pay for and use the equipment over a period of time rather than paying the full cost up front. Then also they need to know how GST applies. Here is some information from the ATO website to explain –

How does hire purchase work?

Under a hire purchase agreement, you:

  • Purchase goods through instalment payments;
  • Use the goods while paying for them;
  • Do not own the goods until you have paid the final instalment.

Where the supply of goods to you under a hire purchase agreement is a taxable supply, the price you pay for the goods includes GST. If you use the goods in your business, you can generally claim a GST credit.

You treat a hire purchase agreement as a stand-alone sale or purchase in a tax period – that is, the same rules apply as they would for any sale and purchase of goods under an ordinary sale agreement. A hire purchase agreement is not treated as a sale or purchase made on a progressive or periodic basis.

Paying GST on hire purchases

If you enter into a hire purchase agreement on or after 1 July 2012, all components of the supply made under the agreement are taxable, whether or not the credit component is separately disclosed. Any associated fees and charges, such as late payment fees incurred under the terms of the hire purchase arrangement, are also subject to GST.

If you enter a hire purchase agreement before 1 July 2012, and the supplier:

  • Separately identifies and discloses the interest charge to you, you don’t have to pay GST on the interest as it is a financial supply;
  • Doesn’t separately identify and disclose the interest charge to you, you must pay GST on the total amount payable under the contract.

The interest charge is ‘disclosed‘ to you if the supplier tells you any of the following in the hire purchase agreement:

  • The dollar amount of the credit charge;
  • The interest rate;
  • The formula or formulas used to work out the credit charge amount;
  • Any other information sufficient to work out the credit charge amount.

A hire purchase agreement entered into before 1 July 2012 continues to be treated in this way even if there’s a subsequent change to the agreement, provided the change doesn’t result in a new agreement. That is, the supply of a separately disclosed credit component will continue to be an input taxed financial supply.

Claiming GST credits on hire purchases

If you account for GST on a NON-CASH (accruals) basis

You can claim the full GST credit on your hire purchase agreement in the tax period when either:

  • You make your first payment;
  • A tax invoice is issued to you, provided you haven’t already made your first payment.

For agreements entered into before 1 July 2012, you claim a GST credit only for the principal component of the agreement, not the credit component.

If you account for GST on a CASH basis

For hire purchase agreements entered into on or after 1 July 2012, you can claim input tax credits up front instead of waiting until each instalment is paid, in the same way as you would if you accounted for GST on a non-cash basis. As all components of a hire purchase agreement entered into on or after 1 July 2012 are subject to GST, you can claim one-eleventh of all components, including the credit component and any associated fees and charges that have been subject to GST under the agreement.

For hire purchase agreements entered into before 1 July 2012 you can claim one-eleventh of the principal component of each instalment in the period you pay it. If the supplier provides regular accounts or statements that show the principal and interest components for each instalment, you must use that information to work out GST credits in the relevant tax period. If you don’t know the principal component for each instalment, you need to take reasonable steps to find out from the supplier.

See some working examples further down the page at the ATO site HERE

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MYOB / Reckon / Quickbooks / Xero – Clear / Remove / Delete the “to be printed” items from print queue

MYOB / Reckon / Quickbooks / Xero – Clear / Remove / Delete the “to be printed” items from print queue

MYOB / Reckon / Quickbooks / Xero – Clear / Remove / Delete the “to be printed” items from print queue

A client called and saidWe had ticked in our invoices to be printed and never did the printing. Now when I go to print a batch that I want to print, all these non-printed invoices are highlighted. There are about 400 so it does take some time to scroll to the few I want. Is there any way I can delete this instruction without bringing each invoice up and deleting the instruction?

A good solution 1 – Turn off your printer – go to print all unwanted items, then delete the print job in the queue on the printer (usually the printer status window that opens, or from icon lower RHS in task bar or hidden icon area.

A good solution 2 – Choose a PDF printer to create a file – it may need some time to be left to run.

And sometimes using the Reckon PDF creator may not take them off and they re-appear next time, so try using Cute PDF (download FREE here http://www.cutepdf.com/Products/CutePDF/writer.asp  and click the top “Free Download” on the right, it will also automatically tell you to download the Ghostscript converter, the second free download on the right, say yes as well) or another PDF software.

Need help? Not sure? Call for FREE 30min advice / strategy session today! 0407 361 596 Aust

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You also get FREE 30 min to assist in setting up your company in the software, and FREE ongoing email or phone support – No-one offers as much!

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Business Tax Tips – Instant asset write off 2017 – $20,000 claim limit ends 30 June 2017

Business Tax Tips – Instant asset write off 2017 - $20,000 claim limit ends 30 June 2017

Instant asset write off 2017 – $20,000 claim limit ends 30 June 2017

If you are a small business (aggregated turnover of less than $2 million) contemplating buying machinery or equipment, be aware that these are final months of the $20,000 instant asset write-off 2017.

With a final date of 30 June 2017, you may consider bringing forward any planned asset investments to the next few months – particularly in this current low interest-rate environment.

The ATO says

Small businesses can immediately deduct assets costing less than $20,000 purchased since 7.30pm 12 May 2015.

You can use the new threshold amounts in claiming deductions in your 2015 and 2016 income tax returns.

The deduction is claimed in the income year in which the asset is first used or installed ready for use.

What’s changed?

The instant asset write-off threshold has increased to $20,000 (up from $1,000). This allows you to immediately deduct the business use portion of a depreciating asset that costs less than $20,000.

The changes apply

  • To assets acquired after 7.30pm on 12 May 2015 until 30 June 2017
  • On a per asset basis, so several assets each costing less than $20,000 would qualify
  • To new and second hand assets.

Assets that cost $20,000 or more (which can’t be immediately deducted) will continue to be deducted over time using a small business pool.

The low pool value threshold will also increase to $20,000. This means that an immediate deduction is available if the pool balance is less than $20,000 at the end of an income year.

What’s not included?

There are a small number of assets that aren’t eligible for accelerated depreciation, for example horticultural plants that have specialised depreciation rules.

Record keeping

Just like any other business asset, you’ll need to keep records to support any claims for a deduction.

Find out about:

Simplified depreciation for small business where we read –

You can choose to use the simplified depreciation rules if you have a small business with an aggregated annual turnover (the total normal income of your business and that of any associated businesses) of less than $2 million.

Under these rules, you:

  • Immediately write-off – deduct their full cost in the year you buy them – most depreciating assets that cost less than $20,000* each that were bought and used, or installed ready for use from 7.30pm (AEST) on 12 May 2015 until 30 June 2017
  • Pool most other depreciating assets that cost $20,000 or more in a small business asset pool and claim
  1. A 15% deduction in the first year (regardless of when you purchased or acquired them during the year)
  2. A 30% deduction each year after the first year
  • Write-off the balance of your small business pool at the end of an income year if the balance – before applying any other depreciation deduction – is less than $20,000.

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Business Finance 101 – What is the difference between Current and Non-Current Liabilities?

Business Finance 101 – What is the difference between Current and Non-Current Liabilities?

What is the difference between Current and Non-Current Liabilities?

Businesses have liabilities – payments that are to be paid soon or later (long term) they are divided into Current and Non-Current.

Current Liabilities are obligations due to be paid within 12 months or less of the date of a company’s balance sheet and will require the use of a current asset (eg money in bank) or will create another current liability if paid by debt or loan.

Current liabilities are usually listed in the following order:

  1. Credit cards and overdraft accounts, loans less than 12 months;
  2. Accounts payable (trade creditors);
  3. The remaining current liabilities such as payroll taxes payable, superannuation, income taxes payable, interest payable and other accrued expenses.

Often, all the parties who are owed current liabilities are called creditors. In special situations, a legal arrangement may be created that gives preference and then those parties are called secured creditors. The majority of creditors are known as unsecured.

Non-Current Liabilities are liabilities that are to be paid over more than 12 months – typically business or vehicle loans and financing such a Chattel Mortgage. Others include Long Service Leave Accruals, and Directors Loans.

Is the business solvent? One overall method that is used to determine if a business is trading in a solvent manner, is to check if the Current Assets are more than Current Liabilities. The amount of current liabilities is used in financial ratios – such as:

  • Working capital (current assets minus current liabilities) and the company’s;
  • Current ratio (current assets divided by current liabilities).

These give an indication of the company health.

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